Distribution of the world's lithium resources utilization and development of Chinese ceramics Network
- Published: 3 Aug 2009 06:44:48
The world in recent years of rapid industrial growth, in particular the rapid development of electronics industry lithium batteries bring a substantial increase in consumption, the world market caused a sharp increase in demand for lithium carbonate, lithium carbonate supply the world market, a sharp rise in the price of lithium carbonate. Recently, the world's lithium industry to tighten up the expansion of production capacity of lithium carbonate, lithium carbonate the world market supply and demand will ease the tension. After two years, not only China's lithium carbonate production capacity to meet domestic market demand, and can supply the world market, the world trend of the market balance of supply and demand of lithium carbonate.
First, the distribution of the world's lithium resources
Lithium salt lake resources in the world mainly located in Chile, Argentina, China and the United States. Lithium pegmatite granite deposits are mainly distributed in Australia, Canada, Finland, China, Zimbabwe, South Africa and the Congo. India and France also found that lithium pegmatite deposit, but do not have the commercial exploitation of the value of the world may be only a small number of countries economic development and utilization of resources of lithium.
China granitic pegmatite lithium deposit located in Sichuan, Xinjiang, Henan, Jiangxi, Fujian, Hunan and Hubei, Sichuan Province, one of a pegmatite-typespodumene deposit is the world's best content of 1.28% lithium oxide , reserves of 1,030,000 tons. Lithium salt lake deposits are mainly distributed in Qinghai and Tibet, Qinghai taijnar which is semi-Salt Lake Salt Lake, covering an area of seven hundred and eighty square kilometers, there are 2-layer rock salt, salt Layer in the occurrence of intergranular pore brine and brine, reserve lithium chloride 466 million tons.
South American Sara (Salar) Occurrence of salt lake resources is extremely rich in lithium, Salt Lake Sarah distribution in Chile, Argentina and Bolivia. In Argentina, AltoWeng (Salar de Hombre Muerto) salt lake deposits, elevation 4300 meters, 565 square kilometer area of brine lakes is estimated to contain 800 billion tons of lithium brine, concentration of 190 ~ 900ppm; Ricken (Salar de Rincon) Salt Lake, elevation 3700 meters, two hundred and fifty square kilometers Brine Lake area, the development of brine can be 1.45 billion tons, the deepest 60 meters, the concentration of 200 ~ 2400ppm. In Bolivia,(Salar de Uyuni) southeast of Salt Lake is located in Bolivia, is the world's largest salt lake, 3650 meters above sea level, covering an area of 10,582 square kilometers, salt Layer the average depth of 121 meters, brine concentration of 80 ~ 1150 ppm, average 321 ppm , it is estimated that 5.5 million tons of lithium content. In northern Chile, Salar de salt lake (Salar de Atacama) is the world's third big salt lake, salt Layer 360 ~ 400 meters depth. Salt Lake Sarah confirmed that the estimated reserves and roughly 277 million tons of total reserves. Sears Lake United States, Bolivia is also the Great Lakes and the Middle East Dead Sea lithium storage resources.
Australia's lithium resources are mainly distributed in the Persian region Greenbushes in Western Australia (Greenbushes) granitic pegmatite deposits, is the world's largest spodumene deposit. Lithium resources are mainly distributed in Canada, Ontario(Bernic) granitic pegmatite deposits, mainly containing lithium minerals spodumene and lithium feldspar through. Zimbabwe Lithium resources are mainly distributed inancient (Masvingo) province bikita (Bikita) Spodumene granite deposits, 1,700 km, width 20 ~ 70 meters, is Zimbabwe's largest spodumene deposit. South Africa spodumene granite containing mainly distributed in the Carp (Cape) Province Noumas and Narrabees region, it is estimated that lithium 30 billion tons of mineral resources.
Turkey's Anadolu University, Angarsk-Nakhodka Materials Science and Engineering Group Miningto clay as raw materials Bigadic boron lithium carbonate from the success of the system, Bigadic clay mineral system could be taken of the raw materials for lithium products, especially lithium-montmorillonite clay .
Second, the status quo the world's lithium resources development
Salt Lake high concentration of lithium resources development in Chile, Argentina and China, extracted from the salt lake brine lithium chemical products produced mainly lithium carbonate and lithium chloride. Lithium rock mineral resources development, mainly in Australia, Canada, Portugal, Zimbabwe, Brazil, Russia and China, separated from the election of lithium ore minerals are mainly spodumene, lepidolite and phosphorus, such as lithium aluminum lithium ore stone.
Salt Lake 2006 World production of lithium and lithium-mine the total 21,100 tons (of lithium and lithium chemical concentrates converted into lithium), 80% of lithium carbonate and lithium chloride form of existence, 20% of the spodumene and other lithium-precision form of the existence of minerals (Figure 1). 2006 world production of 66,600 tons of lithium carbonate, Chile 43,600 tons, accounting for 65.46 percent, 15,000 tons in China, accounting for 22.73%; Argentina, 08,000 tons, accounting for 12.12%. Argentina 8500 tons of lithium chloride production. World production of lithium ore 257,800 tons, of which Australia spodumene production 175,000 tons, accounting for the world production of lithium concentrates 67%; Canada spodumene production 22,500 tons, Zimbabwe stone, such as aluminum lithium phosphorus concentrate production of lithium-3 million tons. Portugal, lepidolite output 16,000 tons. Lithium concentrate production in Brazil 12,100 tons.
Australia Ahluwalia (Sons of Gwalia) is rock the joint developer of lithium resources, mine production capacity of lithium-Greenbushes 150,000 tons / year, including quarry products spodumene lithium oxide 8%, mainly used in ceramics and glass industries. Ahluwalia is the research and development of the production line for lithium products, different applications to meet the needs of the industries.
In Canada there are four companies lithium resources exploration and exploitation of rock. Tantalum (Tanco) Mining Corporation Cabot Corporation is the United States, tantalum developed spodumene and tantalum deposits granite symbiotic concentrator in Canada DoorninkLake, concentrator production of lithium oxide concentrate containing 5% lithium production capacity 24,000 tons / year, lithium concentrates are mainly used in ceramic industry. Ive Long (Avalon) Venture Capital Co., Ltd. is developing the Kenora, Ontario (Kenora) Spodumene northern resources, the company has applied for Ive Long Development Zone, Block 10, covering an area of 3600 hectares, resources Spodumene 11.6 million tons, with an average grade of 1.34% lithium oxide, the spodumene phase of development projects in development. Ragusa (Gossan) Resources Ltd. has completed spodumene mine, mining companies and Ive Long spodumene adjacent quarry. Star mining companies in Quebecdetailed exploration granitic pegmatite deposits, is investigating the research and development of the production of spodumene the possibility of quarry products.
Zimbabwe bikita (Bikita) Limited to develop the mineral spodumene pegmatite granite deposits, lithium ore production capacity 120,000 tons / year, the company suffered a shortage of power supply development issues such as disturbance of the bundle.
Chilean lithium carbonate production in the world. SQM is the world's largest salt lake brine lithium-development companies and factories located in Salar de, factories will be in Salt Lake Sara stem from the exploitation of lithium chloride brine processed further into a lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide. SQM from the production of lithium carbonate in 1997, 2006, annual production of 27,800 tons, in 2008 to 40,000 tons / year, the company plans to increase exports of lithium, the Asian market is the battery industry, the European market is the glass industry. SQM lithium products company currently accounts for 30% of the world market.
Argentina has two large companies to develop lithium salt lake resources, FMC Lithium FMC Group is a division of the United States, Wengfactory is located in Alto, from 1998 production, production capacity of lithium compounds 17,500 tons / year, of which carbonate Lithium 12,000 tons / year, lithium chloride, 05,500 tons / year, plant purification process used to produce chemical pure lithium chloride; plant expansion in 2004, increased production capacity of lithium chloride, 08,500 tons / year in 2006, Li compounds production capacity increased to 20,500 tons / year. Admiralty Resources is a multinational, lithium resources development projects are located in Salta Province, Argentina Ricken (Rincon) Salt Lake, the company's development objective is the production of lithium carbonate 10,000 tons / year, lithium chloride, 03,000 tons / year, hydroxide Lithium 04,000 tons / year, total production capacity of lithium compounds 17,000 tons / year, potash production capacity of 08,000 tons / year, plans to plant in September 2007 to meet the design production capacity of half the size, in June 2008, plant capacity scale to meet the design.
Chemetall GmbH, Germany through a subsidiary of SCL operating two lithium production plant, a plant in the Salar de Chile, and the other in the United States Silver Peak, Nevada, SCL companies lithium carbonate production capacity of two factory 30,000 tons / year lithium carbonate is the basis of lithium chemical industry raw materials, SCL companies which produce more than 100 kinds of products, the company's ability to market super, plan to expand the plant in Chile, production capacity based on the original by 20%.
China's recovery from the rock separate election lithium minerals, from salt lake brine lithium compounds in the preparation. CITIC Guoan Lithium Technology Co., Ltd. is China's largest lithium-industry company with Sichuan Kangding granitic Jiajika spodumene pegmatite quarry and Qinghai Salt Lake taijnar West of mining rights, the company planning capacity lithium salt lake taijnar 35,000 tons / year by 2007, 25,000 tons / year production of lithium carbonate project has been completed and put into production. Qinghai Salt Lake Industry Group LandTek lithium lithium carbonate Chaerhan Salt Lake's investment projects, started construction in 2007, the design of lithium carbonate production capacity of 10,000 tons / year. The development of mining in Tibet Zabuye AG lithium salt lake project, planning lithium carbonate production capacity of 15,000 tons / year is expected to start in 2008. Xinjiang Nonferrous Metal Group of rare metals in August 2006 to re-start the development of rare metal ore Tuohai Aletai cocoa project is expected to recover tens of thousands of tons of lithium ore. The development potential of China's lithium industry, and the world's mining companies have been targeting China, the United States Sterling (Sterling) Venture Capital Group, through micro-speed (Micro Express) with Sichuan Province Mining Corporation signed an agreement to be involved in the development of Sichuan Jiajika quarry Spodumene, micro-speed with the Beijing Institute of Salt Lake Mianping signed an agreement to set up high-tech mining company salt lake in Tibet, Tibet will be the development of the town of Nagqu Damxung Salt Lake Nima, planning lithium carbonate production capacity 30,000 tons / year, 2006 5000 tons in the production line has been completed and put into production. Completion of these projects, China's lithium carbonate production capacity of at least 90,000 tons / year.
Integrated Chile, Argentina and China have been completed, and the expansion of the Salt Lake and the new lithium production project in 2009, the world's lithium carbonate production capacity will reach 150,000 tons / year in 2010 will reach 190,000 tons / year for all whether all the production capacity, it is estimated that all major lithium-industry companies in accordance with market supply and demand situation may be.
Third, the world's lithium products and trends in consumption
World consumption of lithium in 2006 was about 20,000 tons (of lithium and lithium chemical concentrates converted into lithium), of which 80% of the lithium form of consumer chemical products in various application areas, 20% of the consumption patterns of lithium minerals in the ceramics and glass industry. Lithium products in the various sectors of consumption ratio is: ceramics and glass 21%, 20% of the battery, lubricants 17%, 5% medicine, 4% of polymer, air-conditioning refrigerant 8%, 5% aluminum smelting, and agricultural and other alloys Application of 20%.
Lithium products in various applications show a different rate of consumption growth. Battery industry is likely to be the largest lithium carbonate market. Because the future world of mobile computers, mobile phones, digital cameras and mobile electronic products such as electric tools will continue to increase consumption of these electronic products need rechargeable batteries, rechargeable lithium-ion battery number and generating capacity than other batteries, it is estimated that the market will be more Select more than lithium-ion battery; the world attention to the development and utilization of clean energy, hybrid vehicles will become the market mainstream transport, hybrid vehicles are likely to choose the more lithium-ion battery. Glass and ceramics industry will become the second largest lithium products market, the world's glass industry because of advances in technology, ultra-white glass, energy-saving glass and green glass and other glass has a huge multi-purpose market, lithium compounds on the production of a number of glass a useful role, glass industry products of lithium demand is growing.